David White’s framework for mapping individual digital literacy – from visitor to resident, personal to professional is very useful. There are apps/tools that I am mandated to use at work (e.g. Canvas, Panopto, Examsoft, IMMS, Teams), some of them used infrequently like twice a year (for exams only) and I struggle with them each time. They become the ‘masters’, the individual has to ‘comply’. They are not killer apps, they are “kill-joy” apps! My attitude towards these tools are not so positive. In the personal domain, I use FaceTime to chat with my children who are overseas, Youtube for entertainment, e-commerce, e-library, online banking and newsfeed apps which I enjoy a lot and have very positive regard for these apps! So the purpose, why we use the apps, matter a lot. We are more motivated to learn, to be a ‘resident’ when we are using a tool that we enjoy. We tend to be more perfunctory, more like a visitor, when it is something we are required to do, not by choice. The takeaway is that I have to make learning fun, enjoyable and meaningful so that students will be more self-motivated.